Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), formerly called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) or juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA), is a disease that
affects children age 16 and younger. It causes inflamed, swollen, stiff, and
often painful joints. JIA may affect one or more joints and can cause a
The cause of JIA is unknown. Most experts
believe it may be caused by a combination of the following factors:
Scleroderma is often hard to diagnose, since it may look like many other diseases. Your doctor will do a physical exam and take your medical history. He or she will look for changes in skin thickness and do some tests.
One test that doctors use is the nail-fold capillary test. This focuses on one of the earliest signs of scleroderma: the disappearance of tiny blood vessels in the skin of the hands and feet. Doctors also check the blood for specific signs. Your doctor may remove a small tissue sample...